The world of SEO is vast. On one end, we have White Hat SEO, the good guy following all the rules. On the other, there’s Black Hat SEO, the rule-breaker. In between lies Gray Hat SEO.
Let’s dive into the world of Gray Hat SEO, uncover its techniques, and explore its impact on affiliate marketing.
What is Gray Hat SEO?
It involves using techniques and strategies that, while not explicitly prohibited by search engine guidelines, don’t fully align with their best practices. These methods often push the boundaries of what’s considered ethical but avoid crossing into outright unethical territory.
Understanding Gray Hat SEO is crucial as we dig into its techniques and their applications in affiliate marketing.
- Definition and Characteristics:
- Gray Hat SEO can be defined as the use of techniques and strategies that, while not explicitly forbidden by search engine guidelines, also don’t entirely conform to their best practices.
- It often involves pushing the boundaries of what’s considered ethical without crossing into outright unethical territory.
- How it Differs from White and Black Hat Techniques: To grasp Gray Hat SEO fully, it’s important to compare it with its counterparts:
- White Hat SEO: This is the ethical side of SEO, emphasizing adherence to search engine guidelines, creating high-quality content, and prioritizing user experience. White Hat techniques are recognized as safe and sustainable for the long term.
- Black Hat SEO: In contrast, Black Hat SEO employs aggressive and often unethical tactics to achieve quick results, including practices like keyword stuffing, hidden text, and link spamming. These approaches can lead to severe penalties from search engines.
Gray Hat SEO resides between these two extremes. It often employs techniques that may yield short-term gains but could carry risks if search engines change their guidelines or algorithms.
Understanding the distinctions between these SEO approaches is vital as we explore Gray Hat techniques and their applications in affiliate marketing.
The Evolution of Gray Hat SEO
To truly grasp the essence of Gray Hat SEO, it’s essential to take a historical perspective on its evolution. Over the years, this SEO approach has evolved and adapted to the ever-changing landscape of search engines and their guidelines.
- The Evolution of Gray Hat SEO: Historical Perspective on its Evolution:
- Gray Hat SEO didn’t emerge overnight; it evolved alongside the dynamic field of search engine optimization. Its historical development is a fascinating journey that sheds light on marketers’ strategies and tactics to navigate the ever-changing SEO landscape.
- Early Explorations: The Birth of Gray Hat SEO:
- In the early days of SEO, practitioners primarily followed two distinct paths: white-hat SEO and Black Hat SEO. White Hat SEO emphasized ethical practices, such as creating high-quality content, following search engine guidelines, and prioritizing user experience.
- In contrast, Black Hat SEO involved aggressive tactics like keyword stuffing, hidden text, and link spamming, which often led to penalties from search engines.
Gray Hat SEO emerged as a middle ground where marketers began to explore techniques that blurred the lines between these two extremes. These early explorations sought a balance between speed and ethical considerations. Marketers were keen to find strategies that could deliver quicker results without risking severe penalties from search engines.
- Adapting to a Changing Landscape:
- As search engines like Google refined their algorithms and guidelines, Gray Hat SEO evolved in response. Marketers had to adapt their strategies to stay ahead of the curve while avoiding falling into the black-hat territory.
- The landscape of Gray Hat SEO became increasingly sophisticated as practitioners experimented with various techniques, some of which proved more effective than others.
- The Contemporary Gray Hat SEO Landscape:
- Today, Gray Hat SEO continues to evolve. It occupies a space where marketers explore innovative strategies that may not be entirely risk-free but remain within the bounds of what search engines tolerate.
- Techniques like content spinning, influencer collaboration, and selective link building have become common Gray Hat SEO toolkit tools.
- Adapting to Changing Search Engine Algorithms and Guidelines:
- One of the defining features of Gray Hat SEO is its ability to adapt. Search engines continually update their algorithms and guidelines to prioritize user experience and weed out spammy or unethical tactics.
- Gray Hat practitioners walk a fine line, keeping an eye on these changes and adjusting their techniques accordingly.
- Adaptation isn’t just about staying within the bounds of search engine rules; it’s also about innovation. Gray Hat SEO often involves creative approaches to gain an edge in the digital landscape while avoiding penalties.
As we explore Gray Hat SEO techniques, remember that this adaptability and historical context play a significant role in understanding its dynamics.
Why Consider Gray Hat SEO in Affiliate Marketing?
Regarding affiliate marketing, the choice of SEO approach can significantly impact your success.
While White Hat SEO emphasizes ethical practices and Black Hat SEO employs risky tactics, Gray Hat SEO stands in the middle, offering a unique set of advantages:
- Speedy Results and the Allure of Rapid Growth:
- In the fast-paced world of affiliate marketing, time is often of the essence. Gray Hat SEO techniques can provide a quicker route to results. While not without risk, these methods may deliver faster rankings and traffic compared to the gradual pace of White Hat SEO.
- Gray Hat SEO can appeal to affiliate marketers aiming to establish their presence swiftly or capitalize on time-sensitive opportunities.
- Gaining a Competitive Edge in Saturated Niches:
- Many affiliate marketers operate in highly competitive niches where standing out can be challenging.
- Gray Hat SEO allows you to employ strategies others may not utilize.
- This competitive edge can help you carve a space for yourself in a saturated market, potentially outperforming competitors who stick solely to White Hat techniques.
- The Innovative Strategies that Set Marketers Apart:
- Gray Hat SEO often involves creative and innovative approaches to SEO.
- Marketers who embrace Gray Hat techniques tend to be more adaptable and open to experimentation.
- This willingness to explore unconventional methods can set them apart from competitors, leading to unique opportunities and breakthroughs.
While Gray Hat SEO has appeal, it’s crucial to tread carefully. The allure of speedy results should always be balanced with an understanding of the potential risks involved.
As we dig deeper into Gray Hat SEO, consider these advantages and how they may apply to your affiliate marketing strategies.
Common Gray Hat SEO Techniques
Gray Hat SEO encompasses a range of techniques that straddle the line between White Hat and Black Hat practices.
Search engine guidelines do not explicitly prohibit these methods but often push the boundaries of what’s considered ethical.
Let’s explore some of the common Gray Hat techniques you might encounter:
- Clickbait Titles:
- Clickbait titles are attention-grabbing headlines designed to lure users into clicking on a link. While intriguing titles can increase click-through rates, using misleading or overly sensationalized titles can lead to dissatisfaction among users.
- Gray Hat practitioners may use clickbait with care, aiming for a balance between drawing attention and delivering valuable content.
- Spun Content:
- Spun content involves taking existing articles and using software to automatically rewrite them, creating multiple versions of the same content. While this approach can save time, it often results in low-quality, poorly written content.
- Gray Hat SEO practitioners may resort to spun content to generate a large volume of pages quickly.
- Buying Expired Domains:
- Expired domains can carry residual SEO value from their previous owners. Gray Hat SEO practitioners may acquire and repurpose expired domains with relevant backlinks.
- While this tactic can provide an SEO boost, it also comes with risks, as search engines may scrutinize the practice.
- Positive Review Incentives:
- Gray Hat SEO can extend to practices involving online reviews. Marketers might offer incentives, discounts, or even compensation in exchange for positive reviews.
- While this can potentially boost a product’s reputation, it raises ethical concerns, as authenticity and transparency can be compromised.
It’s important to note that while these techniques are associated with Gray Hat SEO, their effectiveness and ethical implications can vary. As we navigate through these techniques, remember the need for a balanced approach and a keen awareness of potential risks.
Balancing Risk and Reward
One of the defining aspects of Gray Hat SEO is the delicate balance between risk and reward.
Before diving into Gray Hat techniques, assessing the potential risks and understanding how they align with the expected rewards is essential.
- Evaluating Potential Risks Before Implementation: Gray Hat SEO techniques often operate in the gray area of SEO practices. This means they carry inherent risks. Marketers must carefully evaluate these risks and consider the consequences. Here are some factors to keep in mind:
- Search Engine Penalties: Gray Hat techniques can lead to penalties if search engines update their algorithms or guidelines. These penalties can result in a drop in rankings or even removal from search engine results.
- Reputation and Trust: Unethical or deceptive practices can harm your brand’s reputation and trustworthiness, affecting customer perception and loyalty.
- Legal Implications: Some Gray Hat techniques may skirt the line of legality, potentially leading to legal consequences.
To balance risk and reward effectively, consider the techniques you plan to use and assess their potential impact. It’s crucial to remain flexible and adapt as the SEO landscape evolves, especially when implementing ethical affiliate marketing strategies.
- Understanding the ROI of Gray Hat Compared to Other Techniques: Return on investment (ROI) is critical for evaluating SEO strategies. Gray Hat SEO can offer faster results than White Hat techniques, but the risks must be weighed against the potential rewards. Consider the following when assessing ROI:
- Short-Term vs. Long-Term Gains: Gray Hat techniques may yield quick wins but might not be sustainable in the long run. White Hat SEO often provides more stable, long-term results.
- Competition: Evaluate the competitive landscape in your niche. If your competitors are using Gray Hat techniques, it may be necessary to level the playing field.
- Ethical Considerations: Assess the ethical implications of your SEO approach. Maintaining a strong ethical foundation is essential for long-term success.
Ultimately, the decision to employ Gray Hat SEO should be based on carefully analyzing potential risks and rewards, focusing on achieving a positive ROI. As we dig further into Gray Hat strategies, remember that a balanced approach is key to mitigating risks and maximizing rewards.
Potential Risks of Gray Hat SEO
While Gray Hat SEO offers some advantages, it’s important to be aware of common SEO mistakes to avoid penalties.
It’s essential to be aware of these risks, especially if you’re considering implementing Gray Hat techniques:
- Algorithmic Penalties: Search engines are continually evolving. What’s considered a Gray Hat technique today might be deemed Black Hat tomorrow, leading to algorithmic penalties and a drop in rankings.
- Manual Actions: If search engine quality teams detect manipulative practices, they might apply manual actions against your site, which can be challenging to recover from.
- Reputation Damage: While not as deceptive as Black Hat, savvy users can still spot Gray Hat techniques. If your audience perceives you’re trying to game the system, it can erode trust.
- Short-Term Gains, Long-Term Losses: Gray Hat might offer quick wins, but these can be short-lived. If search engines update their algorithms or if you face a penalty, the time and resources invested in Gray Hat techniques might go to waste.
- Dependency on Tactics: Over-reliance on Gray Hat methods can lead to neglecting fundamental SEO best practices, which offer sustainable and long-term results.
It’s crucial to weigh these risks against potential benefits. While Gray Hat SEO might seem like a middle ground, it’s a shifting landscape that requires caution and continuous monitoring.
Transitioning Between Hats
In the dynamic world of SEO, it’s not uncommon for marketers to navigate between hats – White Hat, Gray Hat, and, in some cases, Black Hat. Transitioning between these approaches can be a strategic move, and it’s essential to understand how to do it effectively.
Steps to Transition from Gray to Strictly White Hat Techniques:
If you’ve been practicing Gray Hat SEO and are considering a shift towards strictly White Hat techniques, here are some steps to guide your transition:
Audit Your Current Practices: Start by conducting a comprehensive audit of your existing SEO strategies. Identify the Gray Hat techniques you’ve been using and assess their impact.
- Embrace Ethical Guidelines: Familiarize yourself with search engine guidelines and ethical SEO practices. Ensure that your SEO efforts align with these guidelines.
- Content Quality: Focus on creating high-quality, valuable content that prioritizes user experience. High-quality content is a cornerstone of White Hat SEO.
- Link Building: Shift your approach to link building towards natural, high-quality backlinks. Avoid manipulative link-building tactics.
- User-Centric SEO: Prioritize user-centric SEO strategies, including optimizing for user intent and enhancing website usability.
- Keyword Research: Conduct thorough keyword research to identify relevant, high-traffic keywords that align with your content.
- On-Page Optimization: Optimize on-page elements such as titles, headings, and meta descriptions following White Hat best practices.
Moving from Riskier Black Hat Methods to a Gray Hat Approach:
If you’re looking to transition from riskier Black Hat methods to a Gray Hat approach, consider these steps:
- Assess the Risks: Begin by assessing the risks associated with your current Black Hat techniques. Understand the potential penalties and reputation damage.
- Identify Gray Hat Techniques: Research and identify Gray Hat SEO techniques that align with your goals and are ethically acceptable.
- Gradual Transition: Consider a gradual transition rather than abruptly shifting from Black Hat to Gray Hat. Implement Gray Hat techniques alongside your existing strategies.
- Monitor Results: Continuously monitor the performance of your SEO efforts. Pay attention to changes in rankings, traffic, and user engagement.
- Adapt and Refine: Be prepared to adapt and refine your approach as you gain experience with Gray Hat methods. Optimization is an ongoing process.
- Stay Ethical: While Gray Hat techniques may push boundaries, prioritize ethical practices to maintain a positive brand image and reputation.
Whether transitioning from Gray Hat to White Hat or moving from Black Hat to Gray Hat, a well-planned and gradual approach is key to achieving sustainable SEO success.
Key Techniques and Strategies for Gray Hat SEO
While understanding the techniques of Gray Hat SEO is essential, it’s equally crucial to know the tools and strategies that can aid in its implementation:
- Content Spinning Tools: Tools like Spinbot and WordAI help rephrase existing content to produce unique variations. It’s vital to ensure the spun content is readable and provides value.
- Expired Domain Finders: Acquiring expired domains with a good backlink profile can be a Gray Hat strategy. Tools such as ExpiredDomains and DomCop assist in identifying such domains.
- Private Blog Network (PBN) Hosts: PBNs are networks of websites used to build links to a single site for higher search engine rankings. Hosting solutions can help set up and manage PBNs, such as:
- Social Signal Services: Some believe that social signals (likes, shares, tweets) can influence SEO—services aid in artificially boosting these signals, such as:
- Backlink Building Tools: While organic backlinks are the best, tools can help automate the backlink-building process such as:
Remember: while these tools and strategies can offer shortcuts, they come with risks. Always weigh the potential benefits against the possible consequences, especially in the ever-evolving landscape of SEO.
Navigating the world of SEO, especially in affiliate marketing, is akin to traversing a shifting landscape.
Here are some key takeaways about Gray Hat SEO:
- Positioning: Gray Hat SEO sits between the ethical White Hat and the risky Black Hat, offering both opportunities and challenges.
- Temptation vs. Risk: While the allure of quick results is tempting for affiliate marketers, the ever-evolving nature of search engines can turn today’s Gray Hat techniques into tomorrow’s Black Hat risks.
- Future Uncertainty: With advancements in machine learning and artificial intelligence, search engines are getting better at understanding user intent. This evolution might reduce the space for Gray Hat practices in the future.
- Adaptability is Key: The digital realm is dynamic. Staying updated, monitoring results, and being ready to pivot is crucial for affiliate marketers.
- Final Thought: In the world of digital marketing, where change is the only constant, it’s essential to weigh the short-term gains of Gray Hat SEO against potential long-term consequences.
- Steering Clear of SEO Pitfalls: A Guide to Common Mistakes and Their Solutions
- Navigate the tricky waters of SEO by learning about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. This guide offers actionable tips to help you keep your strategies penalty-free.
- Balancing Act: Ensuring Your Affiliate Marketing Strategies are Ethical and Compliant
- Ethics matter in affiliate marketing. This article digs into how you can balance effective strategies with ethical considerations to build a compliant and successful business.
- Understanding Black Hat SEO for Affiliate Marketing
- Explore the high-risk, high-reward world of Black Hat SEO. Learn what it is, why it’s risky, and how it’s used in affiliate marketing.
- Getting Started with White Hat SEO for Affiliate Marketing
- A beginner’s guide to White Hat SEO. Learn the ethical and sustainable practices that can help you build long-term success in affiliate marketing.
Tools & Resources for Gray Hat SEO
Content Spinners: Content spinners are valuable Gray Hat SEO toolkit tools. They allow you to create variations of content while maintaining its quality. However, it’s crucial to use them sparingly and ethically. Here are some tips for using content spinners effectively:
- Use content spinners to generate unique versions of articles, product descriptions, or content for different geographical locations.
- Avoid overusing content spinners, as excessive spinning can result in low-quality content that may not perform well in search results.
- Always review and edit spun content to ensure it reads naturally and coherently.
- Tool: Spin Rewriter: An advanced content-spinning tool known for its quality output.
- Resource: Tutorials and guides on using content spinners effectively to maintain content quality.
Expired Domain Finders: Finding expired domains with relevant backlinks is a strategic move for Gray Hat SEO practitioners. These domains can be repurposed to boost your SEO efforts. Consider the following tips:
- Seek expired domains with high-quality backlink profiles from authoritative sources within your niche.
- Avoid domains with spammy or penalized backlinks, as they can harm your website’s reputation.
- Conduct thorough research to identify domains that align with your SEO strategy before acquiring them.
- Tool: ExpiredDomains.net: A comprehensive platform to discover expired domain names with relevant backlinks.
- Resource: Forums like NamePros and Digital Point for insights on acquiring and repurposing expired domains ethically.
Review Platforms: Managing your online reputation is essential in Gray Hat SEO. Review platforms play a crucial role in this regard. Here’s how to navigate them effectively:
- Encourage genuine reviews from satisfied customers rather than resorting to fake reviews, which can lead to penalties.
- Respond to both positive and negative reviews professionally and transparently.
- Monitor review platforms regularly to stay on top of your online reputation.
- Tool: Trustpilot: A review platform offering robust features for collecting and managing customer feedback.
- Resource: Industry blogs like Moz and forums like Warrior Forum to stay informed about review platform policies and ethical review management.
SEO Analytics Tools: SEO analytics tools are indispensable for tracking the performance of your Gray Hat SEO strategies. Consider these insights:
- Keep an eye on key metrics such as keyword rankings, organic traffic, and the quality of incoming backlinks.
- Use analytics tools to identify areas of improvement in your SEO efforts and make data-driven decisions.
- Tool: SEMrush: A SEO tool for keyword research, competitive analysis, and site auditing.
- Resource: SEMrush Academy for online courses and SEO and digital marketing certification.
Online SEO Communities and Forums: Participating in SEO communities and forums is an excellent way to gain insights and stay updated on Gray Hat SEO trends:
- Choose reputable communities known for their valuable discussions and contributions.
- Engage in discussions, ask questions, and share your expertise to build connections within the SEO community.
- Resource: WebmasterWorld: SEO professionals discuss strategies and industry updates.
SEO Blogs and Publications: Staying informed about search engine algorithm changes and updates is crucial for Gray Hat SEO practitioners. Here’s how to leverage SEO blogs and publications:
- Regularly read blogs and publications that cover Gray Hat SEO topics and subscribe to updates.
- Stay updated on industry news, algorithm changes, and best practices that may affect your strategies.
- Resource: Source for news and insights on SEO and digital marketing trends.
- Search Engine Land
- Search Engine Journal
- Search Engine Round Table
SEO Courses and Training: Enhancing your Gray Hat SEO skills through courses and training is a wise investment:
- Enroll in reputable online SEO courses to deepen your knowledge and expertise.
- Look for certifications from top institutions that can validate your SEO skills.
- Resource: “Coursera” – Offers SEO courses from top universities and institutions to enhance your SEO knowledge.
By following these tips and utilizing the mentioned tools and resources, you can effectively implement Gray Hat SEO techniques while staying compliant with guidelines and adapting to algorithmic changes. Remember to consider your needs and budget.
Navigating Search Engine Resources:
Some search engines offer resources to help you navigate their guidelines and updates:
- Google: Search Central Blog: Find official Google Search core algorithm updates, announcements of new Google Search features, and SEO best practices.
- Bing: Webmaster Tools provides insights and resources for webmasters and SEO professionals to optimize their websites for Bing.
- Yahoo does not have a dedicated webmaster toolset, but it has integrated with Bing Webmaster Tools for webmasters and website owners to manage their site’s presence in Yahoo Search results.
- DuckDuckGo emphasizes user privacy and doesn’t have a formal webmaster resource.
Navigating Search Engine Guidelines and Updates:
Keeping up with the ever-changing landscape of search engine guidelines and updates is crucial for success in the world of digital marketing and SEO.
Here’s a general guide on where to find the resources you need:
- Official Search Engine Blogs:
- Most search engines maintain official blogs or news sections announcing algorithm updates and sharing best practices. Check these blogs regularly to stay informed.
- Webmaster Tools and Dashboards:
- Explore webmaster tools or dashboards for a specific search engine if you can access them thoroughly. They often provide insights, alerts, and resources to help you navigate the platform effectively.
- Online SEO Communities:
- Industry Blogs and Publications:
- Industry-specific blogs and publications often cover the latest news and trends related to search engine optimization. Subscribe to newsletters or follow these sources to receive regular updates.
- SEO Courses and Training:
- Consider enrolling in SEO courses and training programs offered by recognized institutions. These courses often include modules on staying updated with platform-specific changes.
- Social Media and Forums:
- Follow relevant SEO experts and professionals on social media platforms like Twitter and LinkedIn. Engage in discussions and follow threads in SEO-related forums to gain insights into updates and changes.
- Email Notifications:
- Many search engine platforms offer email notifications or newsletters with updates and important announcements. Subscribe to these notifications to receive timely information.
Remember that each search engine may have its own unique resources and channels for updates. Be proactive in seeking out and subscribing to these resources to stay well-informed about any changes or guidelines that may impact your SEO efforts.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
- Q1: What is Gray Hat SEO?
- A1: Gray Hat SEO is an approach that falls between the ethical practices of White Hat SEO and the riskier tactics of Black Hat SEO. It involves techniques and strategies that are not explicitly forbidden by search engine guidelines but may push the boundaries of what’s considered ethical.
- Q2: How does Gray Hat SEO differ from White Hat and Black Hat SEO?
- A2: Gray Hat SEO occupies a middle ground between the ethical practices of White Hat SEO and the riskier tactics of Black Hat SEO. It involves techniques that may carry some risks but are not entirely unethical. On the other hand, White Hat SEO emphasizes ethical practices, while Black Hat SEO employs aggressive and often unethical tactics.
- Q3: What are the advantages of using Gray Hat SEO in affiliate marketing?
- A3: Gray Hat SEO can offer several advantages in affiliate marketing:
- It can deliver quicker results compared to White Hat techniques.
- It provides innovative strategies that can help you stand out in competitive niches.
- Gray Hat SEO allows marketers to explore a middle ground between the safety of White Hat and the risks of Black Hat SEO.
- Q4: What are some common Gray Hat SEO techniques?
- A4: Common Gray Hat SEO techniques include:
- Using clickbait titles to attract clicks.
- Employing content spinning to generate variations of existing content.
- Collaborating with influencers to promote products or services.
- Buying expired domains to leverage their existing authority.
- Offering incentives for positive reviews to boost credibility.
- Q5: What are the potential risks of Gray Hat SEO?
- A5: There is the possibility of penalties if search engine guidelines change. Reputation risks due to potentially unethical practices. The transient nature of success with Gray Hat techniques as algorithms and guidelines evolve.
- Q6: How can I transition from Gray Hat to White Hat SEO?
- A6: Transitioning from Gray Hat to White Hat SEO involves:
- Shifting towards more ethical practices, such as creating high-quality content.
- Following search engine guidelines.
- Focusing on improving user experience.
- Q7: Are there tools and resources for Gray Hat SEO?
- A7: Yes, some tools and resources can assist in Gray Hat SEO strategies, including
- Content Spinners: Tools like Spin Rewriter and WordAI can help you create unique content variations quickly.
- Expired Domain Finders: Tools like ExpiredDomains and DomCop can help you locate valuable expired domains for your SEO efforts.
- Review Platforms: Platforms such as Trustpilot and G2 Crowd can be useful for managing and obtaining reviews, though using them ethically is important.
- Link Building Tools: Tools like Ahrefs and SEMrush can assist in backlink analysis, a crucial aspect of SEO.
- Keyword Research Tools: Tools such as Google Keyword Planner, Moz Keyword Explorer, and SEMrush’s Keyword Magic Tool can help you identify valuable keywords for your content.
- Please note that while these tools can be beneficial, it’s important to use them responsibly and ethically to avoid any potential risks associated with Gray Hat SEO.
- Q8: Is Gray Hat SEO suitable for long-term success in affiliate marketing?
- A8: While Gray Hat SEO can provide quick wins, it’s essential to consider the long-term benefits of ethical White Hat SEO for sustained success in affiliate marketing.
- Q9: How do search engine algorithm changes impact Gray Hat SEO?
- A9: Search engine algorithm changes can impact Gray Hat SEO strategies. Gray Hat SEO practitioners must adapt their techniques to align with changing algorithms and guidelines, as search engines prioritize user experience and penalize spammy tactics.
- Q10: Can I use Gray Hat SEO while maintaining ethical standards?
- A10: It’s possible to use Gray Hat SEO techniques ethically by carefully considering the impact on user experience and adhering to best practices within ethical boundaries. However, exercising caution and balancing innovation with ethical standards is essential.
Until Next Time, Kerri
Founder of Marketing with Kerri
Member of Wealthy Affiliate
Member of Jaaxy
Member of SiteRubix